Basic First Aid - Primary Assessment

The basic first aid that is given to a casualty immediately after an accident can make the difference between a minor injury and a long stay in hospital or even death.

Try to remember the primary assessment abbreviated to : DRsAB or Drs ABC.


First Aid Primary Assessment

D: Danger Check the area for danger and do not approach if it unsafe or there is a rick of further injury to yourself or the casualty.
R: Response Check the casualty for a response: gently shake the casualty and ask if they can hear you.
If they are responsive: get details of what happened and assess the casualty yourself.
If in any doubt about their condition you must get professional help for them.

If they are unresponsive: quickly shout for help and try to attract attention to someone to come over to you.
S: Shout for help NOTE: this was removed from recommended practice in 2016. Some people think it is still a good idea to try to attract attention and get people to come to assist you or be ready to assit you if needed.
A: Airway Open the casualties airway by gently tilting the head back and lifting the chin.
B: Breathing Check for breathing by looking, listening, and feeling for 10 seconds. If normal breathing is not detected:
  • adult casualty: summon professional help e.g. call for an ambulance, leave the casualty if necessary to do this.
    Start CPS as soon as you know the ambulance hss been called.
  • child casualty: immediately commence CPR, bystanders call ambulance if they are available, continue CPR for approximately 1 minute, check for breathing again, if still not breathing ensure ambulance has been called, if necessary leave the casualty to do this.
    Start CPR as soon as you know the ambulance hss been called.

Secondary Assessment and Casualty Position

Position Correctly Make sure the casualty in in a suitable position to maintain their airway and assist breathing.
Body Check thourough check of casualty for injuries.
Information Get as much relevant information about the casualty as possible. S.A.M.P.L.E & P.Q.R.S.T questions can be used to help gather information.

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